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By the numbers: Interracial Mating in America

March 31, 2010

With the search terms like “black breeding white women” directing hits to my post Interracial Breeding: White Women every day, I can only assume people are legitimately curious about this subject beyond the pornographic aspect. My other post Interracial breeding: Indian chicks was popular with In Mala Fide readers.

I decided to go ahead and post the data on all groups interracial breeding habits.

These numbers are from the CDC’s 2006 Natality Detail File, which is probably more reliable than the US Census, as it purports to collected data from birth certificates on every single birth which occurred in the United States in that year.  I suspect in cases of disputed paternity or most teenage pregnancies, information on the father is not available and his race is reported as ‘unknown’.  The race of the mother is in bold.

Race/Ethnicity of Mother Race of father (%)
Hispanic white black Non-Hispanic Other Unknown or Not Stated
white 4.7 81.3 2.6 1.7 9.7
Mexican 78.5 6.4 1.4 0.8 12.9
black 1.8 2.7 58.1 0.8 36.6
Cuban 69.8 18.6 3 0.9 9.6
Puerto Rican 54 14.6 11.7 2.1 17.7

While every state asks about the Hispanic ancestry of the mother and father, it seems that only half of all mothers that year lived in states which record data on specific Asian ancestry – who are nationally grouped into the “other” category with Native Americans.

Race/Ethnicity of Mother Race of father (%)
Hispanic white black Non-Hispanic Other Unknown or Not Stated
Chinese 2.2 12.1 0.7 79.5 5.5
Vietnamese 2.7 13.1 0.8 74.6 8.8
Filipino 9 27.2 4.5 52.8 6.5
Japanese 7.5 35.8 4.6 49 3.1
Indian 1.7 4.7 1.1 89.3 3.2

The term “Non-Hispanic Other” represents all Asian ethnicities and Native Americans. 45% of Filipinos report having a Filipino father.  Only 32.6% of Japanese mothers report having a Japanese partner, they are by far the most exogamous group.

Female Hypergamy?

My main reason for investigating this issue was to find evidence of so-called “female hypergamy” on a national scale. However, I was quickly discouraged when I found that for an alarming percentage of mothers, the race of their child’s father was ‘unknown’ (though as you’ll notice, these percentages aren’t quite as high as illegitimacy rates). With white women, I hypothesized that a heavily disproportionate portion of unknown father category would be black and Hispanic due to educational differences between white mothers who reproduced with different groups. But with Indian women, it appeared that those who reproduced exogamously were actually better educated than those with Indian men.

You can find some evidence of female hypergamy with Asian groups however. From the overall births (here and here) 4518 Korean women gave birth while only 3501 women reported having Korean men as fathers. This suggests that unless a sizeable population of Korean men are running around and knocking up women in trailer parks/inner-city and disappearing, Korean men are losing the reproductive battle with men of other races.

The real “black breeding”

Random googlers may be disappointed to find that Black men don’t appear to be sexually outcompeting peckerwoods with white women or other minorities – even Puerto Ricans. I was also surprised that it appears that white women and other minorities prefer Hispanic men over blacks (Though I would guess in the case of illegitimate offspring, perhaps identifying the father as white/Hispanic is more acceptable for some?)

If we were genuinely curious about how much women of a certain race preferred men of another race, looking at the overall percentages would be deceptive as different cultures put varying amounts pressure on their female members to search for mates within the group. The best sort of analysis would be to compare how non-group members do relative to other non-group members.

White women, for example, are 1.77 times more likely to report reproducing with a Hispanic than a black. That ratio for Chinese women is 3.14, Filipino women at 2.0, and Vietnamese women at 3.4. The ratio is lowest for Indian women at 1.5.

Cuban women are 6.2 times more likely to report reproducing with a white male than a black. That ratio for Chinese women is 17.2, Vietnamese women at 6.0, and Mexican women at 4.6. The ratio is lowest for Indian women at 4.2. I left out Puerto Ricans as they have heavy black ancestry.

These ratios imply that Indian women (if they are in the mood to be exogamous) are more likely to “hook-up” with black men than women of other races. Given that Indians and blacks are at polar opposites of the socioeconomic spectrum, this is somewhat interesting.

UPDATE 04/15/10: TheAsianofReason asked about the statistical significance of my assertions. While the sample sizes are fairly large, there were 18k Chinese and Indian mothers each, they may be susceptible the geographic bias (eg. perhaps New Jersey Indians are more prone to miscegenation with blacks than Arizona Indians?).

Crunching the numbers from the available data, I found that Indians were significantly more like to reproduce with black men than Chinese women (χ2=19.44, p<0.001) and significantly less likely than reproduce with white men than Mexican mothers.  I don’t know how to check the proportions though. Two-proportion confidence interval maybe?

Texas’ Little-Discussed Drug Culture

March 29, 2010

Keeping inline with his on-going California v. Texas theme, Steve Sailer points out white students at various grade levels perform better in Texas than in California. This was true of other races too.

This doesn’t really follow HBD theories. As expected, Sailer commenters are mostly hysterical.

Spicolli from Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982) is referenced as evidence of California’s evasive drug culture. California commenters began relating stories of ‘rehab’ I assume they had heard on Entertainment Tonight. They’ve bought into the media hype of self-worshipping Angelinos. Like my former Californian Hispanic co-workers at Dominos, I soon expected someone to chime in about how “badass” commercialized Humboldt county weed is. A few references to Californication would’ve been nice too.

Californians forget that Asians numerically/socially dominate their white-flight public schools and drug use among those groups simply doesn’t fly. In contrast, suburban Texas schools are whiter and laid back. A decade ago, in the white-flight Dallas suburb of Plano, approximately 20 teens died in a 3 year span from a low-quality Heroin epidemic. Hardcore drugs are more prevalent in Texas (and probably cheaper) as the state only sits on one of the largest illicit drug corridors in the world. Comparing the responses on the Youth Risk Behavioral Survey (2007) between the major metropolitan areas of the two states we find that Texas high school students pwn their west coast counterparts:

Ever used cocaine?

Dallas: 12.6%

Houston: 11.4%

LA: 11.4%

San Diego: 9%

San Bernardino: 5.5%

San Francisco: 5.2%

heroin/meth use:

Dallas: 5.2%

Houston: 4.9%

LA: 3.1%

San Diego: 3.2%

San Bernardino: 1.7%

San Francisco: 2.3%

Ecstasy use:

Dallas: 6.8%

Houston: 10.3%

LA: 6.4%

San Diego: 9%

San Bernardino: 5.1%

San Francisco: 6.7%

Dallas leads the nation in cocaine use and Houston leads in ecstacy use. In the state surveys overall Texas comes in second in cocaine use and first in ecstasy use. Early in December, a massive shipment of tabs imprinted with Obama’s face were seized in the Rio Grande Valley.

This isn’t even a new phenomenon, from a 2000 Austin Chronicle article “Countdown to Ecstasy

Due in no small part to the open-air-market feel of Ecstasy dealing in Austin and other cities, however, the DEA rushed MDMA into Schedule I on July 1, 1985, using the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984, which allowed for “emergency scheduling of any substance deemed to be a significant threat to the public.”

The DEA issued a statement justifying the emergency scheduling, which mentioned the “open promotion of MDMA as a legal euphoriant through fliers, circulars, and promotional parties,” and noted the almost certainly lowballed statement that “30,000 dosage units of MDMA are distributed in Dallas each month.”

The article also claims that the UK-band New Order had their first roll in Austin. $12 a hit? Haha. Glad to know some things haven’t been hit so badly by inflation.

In addition to Mexican-imported stimulants, Houston rappers are responsible for popularizing the prescription-drug concoction Purple Drank throughout the south.

I haven’t tried this, but it seems clever. In spite of these behaviors, I suppose Houston blacks could have higher IQs than African-Americans from other states. The other stuff doesn’t really make sense though…

Demonstrated “gene silencing” in humans via siRNA administration

March 25, 2010

From Nature:

Therapeutics that are designed to engage RNA interference (RNAi) pathways have the potential to provide new, major ways of imparting therapy to patients. Long, double-stranded RNAs were first shown to mediate RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the potential use of RNAi for human therapy has been demonstrated by the finding that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs; approximately 21-base-pair double-stranded RNA) can elicit RNAi in mammalian cells without producing an interferon response. We are at present conducting the first in-human phase I clinical trial involving the systemic administration of siRNA to patients with solid cancers using a targeted, nanoparticle delivery system. Here we provide evidence of inducing an RNAi mechanism of action in a human from the delivered siRNA. Tumour biopsies from melanoma patients obtained after treatment show the presence of intracellularly localized nanoparticles in amounts that correlate with dose levels of the nanoparticles administered (this is, to our knowledge, a first for systemically delivered nanoparticles of any kind). Furthermore, a reduction was found in both the specific messenger RNA (M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2)) and the protein (RRM2) levels when compared to pre-dosing tissue. Most notably, we detect the presence of an mRNA fragment that demonstrates that siRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage occurs specifically at the site predicted for an RNAi mechanism from a patient who received the highest dose of the nanoparticles. Together, these data demonstrate that siRNA administered systemically to a human can produce a specific gene inhibition (reduction in mRNA and protein) by an RNAi mechanism of action.

[Davis ME, Zuckerman JE, Choi CH, et. al. Evidence of RNAi in humans from systemically administered siRNA via targeted nanoparticles. Nature (In Press)]

RNA interference is a very new field of research. The guys who first observed RNAi won the Nobel Prize just 4 years ago.

From Calando Pharmaceuticals’ press release:

Thus far in the trial, no significant drug-related toxicities, known as serious adverse events (SAEs), have been observed that may limit use.

Their Phase I trial appeared to only have 3 subjects but this is promising news. From a Nature Review in 2009, other clinical trials are ongoing using RNAi-based therapeutics:

[Castanotto D, Rossi JJ. The promises and pitfalls of RNA-interference-based therapeutics. Nature. 2009;457(7228):426-33.]

ARWR is up 100% since this announcement. Seems like it should be more like 1000%. I guess dull investors are spooked by Obongo-care.

Low-IQ White male’s burden: depression?

March 23, 2010

Over at Alternative Right, John Derbyshire babbles:

phenes are heritable at about the 50 percent level — not a thing that will surprise anyone who has raised children, but another boot in the rear end for the “psychodynamic” model (“I’m like this because of the way I was raised!”) that underlay psychoanalysis, and earlier editions of the DSM.

Anyways, you get the point. Scroll down and he has a picture of some white guy posing with savages.

Presumably Derbyshire is aware of the higher prevalence of depression among whites and Asians relative to blacks and Hispanics. Cornell has had 6 suicides since October. In the 15-24 female age group, Asian-Americans (presumably east Asians in this case) have the highest suicide rate of any race. Derbyshire would probably assume that these maladies are related to genetics or IQ.

It makes sense; introspection is going to require a minimum threshold of intellect. So one would assume that rates of depression would follow a linear upward trend from proletarian blacks/Hispanics to highly-educated whites and Asians, right? The over-rated but still brilliant David Foster Wallace hung himself. Kurt Kobain blasted himself while Tupac had to be taken down by another darkie. Obsidian would finally have something on those “high-IQ white folk”.

Researchers at UMich looked at the data from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III which was conducted from 1988 to 1994. In it they found:

Prevalence of major depressive disorder differed significantly by racial/ethnic group,with the highest prevalence in White participants (Table 1). Mexican American and White individuals had significantly earlier onset of major depressive disorder compared with African American individuals(P=.001). Overall, persons living in poverty had nearly 1.5 times the prevalence of major depressive disorder; however, poverty was significantly associated with prevalence of major depressive disorder only for White respondents (P=.023). Lack of education(<8 years of school) was significantly associated with prevalence of major depressive disorder only for Mexican American individuals (P=.000).

[Riolo SA, Nguyen TA, Greden JF, King CA. Prevalence of depression by race/ethnicity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(6):998-1000.]

From their numbers, blacks/ Hispanics were about 30% less likely to be depressed. Adjusting for income and marital status (age did not appear to be a factor in depression diagnosis), blacks were half and likely to be depressed and Mexicans were about a third as likely.

Looking for more recent data, I downloaded the more recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000 which unfortunately had a smaller sample size.

In the data the prevalence of depression by race was as follows:

Depression prevalence:

White: 9.3%

Black: 5.3%

Mexican: 4.4%

But when I isolated rates of depression for whites by education, I was a little bit surprised

Depression by education (Whites only):

High school or less: 42.9%

Some college/AA degree: 25.0%

Bachelors or above: 32.1%

You wouldn’t imagine Cletus to be brooding and deep but apparently, he is. The trend exists in other races. No college educated blacks or Mexicans in the study were depressed.

My other default assumption was that psychiatry is mostly quackery and smart people will purposefully deceive their shrinks about their MDD as they fear being placed on a dangerous, mild-altering SSRI. After all, they were only visiting the shrink for a benzo or addie.

Yet these sorts of gaps pop-up over and over again, from Wikipedia:

By race, in the United States, caucasians are nearly 2.5 times more likely to kill themselves than are […] Hispanics.

After looking at the numbers, I still don’t really understand them. If Depression is mostly genetic, presumably upper-class blacks and Hispanics would have similar rates as whites due to race-mixing. Obviously Depression has a mostly cultural and environmental component, though I’m sure Derbyshire doesn’t want to hear any of that.

African-Americans, Alzheimer’s Disease, and the effects of epimutations on cognition

March 20, 2010

In my first few posts, I posit that racial differences in I.Q. scores may be partially related to racial differences in nutrition and environment. ‘Epigenetics’ provides a mechanism for this gene-environment interaction to occur.

What is epigenetics and what proof is there of its existence in humans? This explains it pretty clearly:

Interestingly, a recent study in monozygotic twins has shown that the epigenetic ‘‘code’’ displays alterations, which increase with aging and depend on the amount of time that the twins spent together (Fraga et al., 2005). For example, in 35% (14 of 40)of the investigated twin pairs both genomic 5-methyl-C content and the acetylation levels of H3 and H4 were significantly different in each twin. Moreover, Fraga and colleagues found a direct association between these epigenetic differences and theage of the MZ twins, i.e. the younger pairs were epigenetically similar, whereas the older pairs were most distinct. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that, besides stochastic changes in the epigenome that occur throughout life, environmental factors such as nutrition, diet, drugs, hormones, and infections modulate a person’s phenotype via epigenetic mechanisms (Abdolmaleky et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2008; Poulsen et al., 2007).

[Chouliaras L, Rutten BP, Kenis G, Peerbooms O, et al. Epigenetic regulation in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Prog Neurobiol. (In Press)]

Alzheimer’s disease is a well-studied example of environment affecting cognition, though exact epigenetic mechanisms are not yet known. Racial differences in prevalence of AD appear to exist. According to the Alzheimer’s Association:

Alzheimer’s disease is more prevalent among African-Americans than among whites — with estimates ranging from 14% to almost 100% higher

The epsilon 4 allele of the APOE gene is believed to be associated with Alzheimer’s and other cognitive impairments. The allele is held by 23.1% of African Americans and 14.9% of whites and it appears to be associated with cognitive decline in people as young as 45. But the most significant role in cognitive decline is not the allele itself the gene-environment interaction of the E4 allele with high cholesterol and diabetes. Just look at this chart, which shows the decline in a subject’s mental acuity over 6 years.

[Blair CK, Folsom AR, Knopman DS, Bray MS, et al. APOE genotype and cognitive decline in a middle-aged cohort. Neurology. 2005;64(2):268-76.]

The African-American cohort in that study was too heterogeneous to make draw any statistically significant conclusions from, however they found that

In African Americans, 4 carriers had greater ultrasound-assessed carotid intima–media thickness than noncarriers.

Which suggests that cognitive decline in that group could’ve happened well before 45.

Indian States by HDI

March 15, 2010

I recently stumbled upon a ranking of individual Indian states by their Human Development Index (HDI) scores. From the Indian Handbook on Social Welfare Statistics (2007):

HDI (1999)
Kerala 0.638
Punjab 0.537
Tamil Nadu 0.531
Maharashtra 0.523
Haryana 0.509
Gujarat 0.479
Karnataka 0.478
India (all) 0.472
West Bengal 0.472
Rajasthan 0.424
Andhra Pradesh 0.416
Orissa 0.404
Madhya Pradesh 0.394
Uttar Pradesh 0.388
Assam 0.386
Bihar 0.367

At the top of the list, you’ll notice Communist-ruled Kerala. From 1999 to 2007, India’s overall HDI grew by about 30%. Assuming all the states grew at exactly the same rate that the nation did, I went ahead and multiplied them by that amount and threw in a few black African nations to give us a gauge on how things might be in recent years:

HDI (2007)
Kerala 0.827
Jamaica 0.766
Punjab 0.696
Tamil Nadu 0.688
Namibia 0.686
Maharashtra 0.678
Haryana 0.660
Gujarat 0.621
Karnataka 0.619
India (all) 0.612
West Bengal 0.612
Angola 0.564
Rajasthan 0.550
Kenya 0.541
Andhra Pradesh 0.539
Orissa 0.524
Uganda 0.514
Madhya Pradesh 0.511
Uttar Pradesh 0.503
Assam 0.500
Malawi 0.493
Bihar 0.476

Uttar Pradesh is home of the Taj Mahal.

While India has big time discrepancies among states, development doesn’t seem to be concentrated in one specific geographic region. See: Mexican States by HDI

Update: The BBC wonders why Kerala isn’t Singapore and why Kerala doesn’t attempt to imitate more successful Indian states. The NYT gives us a response.

Interracial Breeding: Indian Chicks

March 13, 2010

Robert Lindsay has an interesting post about how much head size varies amongst the races. Curious about how this would relate to interracial mating, I checked to see if women of particularly small-headed races have more C-sections when they reproduce with men of big-headed races.

Short Answer: Yes but the difference is very slight.

To start with, I looked at the data from the 2006 Natality Detail File for races which Lindsey noted as having small skulls. Only certain states collect data on Asian nationalities (you can see the variable here), from that data I looked at Asian Indians (the dot kind, not the feather kind). Of those who gave birth in certain states in 2006 (n=18025), the race of the father is as follows..

Race of Father (Indian Women)

Hispanic:                             1.7%

White:                                     4.7%

Black:                                       1.1%

Indian:                                88.3%

Other Asian:                             1%

Unknown/Not Stated:   3.2%

And the education of the mothers who reproduced with these fathers (in terms of years of schooling):

Race of Father Mean Educational Attainment Std. Deviation
Mexican 16.13 21.101
White 15.78 4.531
Black 15.71 12.236
Indian 15.64 7.207
Unknown/Not Stated 14.51 16.052
All 15.60 7.824

Once again, we notice that the “Unknown” mothers are the lagging group. These differences are not statistically significant.

Excepting the unknown father group, they appear almost the reverse educational hierarchy of White women who engage in miscegenation (which I covered in a previous post – Interracial Breeding: White Women).

And what about the rate of Caesarian births?

C-Section births with Indian mothers:

Chinese Guys                                    41.7%

White Guys                                        38.4%

Indian Guys                                        36.3%

This follows Lindsay’s racial hierarchy of head sizes.